SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR FOR THE PALM HANDHELD COMPUTER 

MODEL SC103PU 
INSTRUCTION MANUAL 
With the program SC103PU you get a powerful and freely available scientific calculator for the Palm platform. Apart from scientific functions it also offers a full set of logical operations and conversions between different numeric systems. Additionally the calculator offers a units mode for easy conversions between different units including currencies, as well as calculations with mixed units. The program is designed in a way, that it simulates the visual and operational aspects of a true calculator, such that the user will be immediately familiar with its interface.
1. BACKGROUND 
The calculator program SC103PU can be executed on all devices equipped with the Palm Operating System version 2.0 or higher. In addition, it requires the freely available MathLib which is shipped as part of the calculator for your convenience.
The calculator program automatically adapts to single and multi color devices. Starting with version 1.26 of the SC103PU, high resolution displays of SONY Clié devices and devices equipped with Palm Operating System version 5 or higher are also automatically detected and supported. There is no need for different versions of the program.
The calculator SC103PU is shipped in three different languages: English, german and esperanto. Only menu items and dialog boxes have been translated; key and display labeling is identical in all versions. To select the desired language, you have to install the proper program module. Since the name of the program module is the same for all languages, you can only have one language version installed at the same time.
The calculator program SC103PU as
well as the MathLib have to be installed on your Palm device. The SC103PU uses
the MathLib for some of its calculations. If you don't know, how to install
additional applications on your Palm device, please refer to the instruction
manual which is shipped with your Palm device.
Installation Procedure:
To display the preferences window, select the menu item "Preferences...", which is located in the "Options" menu.
You can specify how the calculator should display the numbers. If you select "Localized number format", then seperator characters for numbers are used according to the global system preferences. Otherwise, commas are always displayed as dots and spaces are used to separate groups of three digits. Separator characters for groups of three digits will, however, only be used if you select "grouped" number display mode. In "compact" mode digits are displayed with equal spacing. Number settings only have effect in SCIENTIFIC and UNITS mode, the appearance of numbers in LOGIC mode can not be changed.
NOTE: All examples shown in these operating instructions assume that the "Localized number format" is not active and that the compact number display is selected. If you use other settings, then numbers displayed on your device may appear in a different format.
The flickering of the display serves as a visual feedback to show you that the calculator has accepted your input. In addition, the pressed key will be highlighted but this effect is often not noticable during fast input because of the delay time of the usually used liquid crystal displays.
The flickering effect of the display can be made stronger or softer. If a
greater hide time is selected, the display will be hidden for a longer time and
the flickering effect will be stronger. Select a value according to your
personal taste.
Note: If the flickering effect is enabled, then the display will be dark as
long as you press a key. If you release the key before the selected hide time
is reached, then the display will stay dark at least until the selected hide
time is over. Not all keys, e.g. number keys, result in a flickering effect of
the display because some result in a visual display change anyway and also to
simply prevent a too nervous display.
1. OPERATING MODES 
The calculator SC103PU offers three general operating modes for different tasks. To select the desired operating mode there are the three vertically arranged fields at the right border of the display which are labeled SCIENTIFIC, LOGIC and UNITS. To select the desired operating mode, tip on the corresponding field with the stylus. The field indicating the currently selected mode is shown in a dark background color.
On color devices  On B/W devices  

SCIENTIFIC mode 

LOGIC mode 

UNITS mode 
In SCIENTIFIC mode, the SC103PU acts like a scientific calculator with 14 digits. In LOGIC mode, conversions between four different numeric systems are possible and basic arithmetic calculations and boolean operations can be performed. In UNITS mode, conversions between different units including currencies and mixed unit calculations can be performed.
2. SCIENTIFIC MODE 
The Palm handheld can be used like a calculator with 14 digits. For that purpose the program SC103PU has to be switched into SCIENTIFIC mode. You can activate the SCIENTIFIC mode by tapping on the corresponding field at the right border.
This is how the calculator in SCIENTIFIC mode looks like:
On color devices  On B/W devices  

Now we will perform some simple calculations. Press the following keys and look at the display:
Input  Display  
123  123.  
123.  
654  654.  
777. 
Did you get the right result? If not, press the key
and try the same calculation again.
Next, the value of pi () should be recalled. The
symbol "" is located above the key .
Press the symbol.
Input  Display  
3.1415926535898 
The Display now shows the value of .
Now 10^{4} should be calculated. For this operation the function 10^{x}
will be used.
Input  Display  
4  10000. 
Following the most important keys will be outlined:
* (Clear) (red rsp. dark key) 
If this key is pressed immediately after input of numerical data or after a recall of the memory contents, this data will be cleared. In any other case, pressing the key clears the operator and/or the numerical data which have been entered. The content of the memory will not be cleared by pressing the key.
Input  Display  
123 456  456.  
0.  
786  912.  (123 + 789 = 912)  
6 2  12.  
0.  
6 2  12.  
5  8. 
The key can also be used to clear an error condition.
Input  Display  
5 0  
* (Display mode switch) 
With this key you can switch the display mode for the result of a calculation from floating point system (normal mode) to fixed point system (FIX), scientific notation (SCI), engineering notation (ENG) or vice versa.
Input  Dispay  
23 1000  
* (specifies the number of decimal digits) 
In comibation with a number key, this key can be used to specify the number of decimal digits (digits after the decimal point). Press the clear key so that "0." is displayed. Press the key , then "0.000" (FIX mode) appeares on the display.
1. Specification of 2 decimal digits.
Input  Display  
2  
5 8 
2. Specification of 5 decimal digits.
Input  Display  
5 
* (specifies the angular mode) 
This key is used to specify the angular mode for numerical data for trigonometric functions, inverse trigonometrc functions and coordinate transformations.
Input  Display  
(Degree)  
(Radian)  
(Grad)  
(Degree) 
180° = (rad) = 200^{g} 
DEG: Degree [°] RAD: Radian [rad] GRAD: Grad [g] 
* (transforms between angular modes) 
This key is used for transformations between angular modes and simultaneously specifies the angular mode for numerical data for trigonometric functions, inverse trigonometrc functions and coordinate transformations.
Input  Dispay  
180  (Degree)  
(Radian)  
(Grad)  
(Degree) 
* to , , and 
: Used to enter numbers in exponential notation (an "E" following the entered number appears on the display).
Input  Display  
4 3  4.E 003  (4 × 10^{3})  
4000.  
4000. 
: Used to enter negative numbers (or to inverse the sign from negative to positive).
Input  Display  
1.23  1.23  
5  1.23E005  (1.23 × 10^{5})  
0.0000123  
0.0000123 
* (Backspace) 
With this key the last entered digit can be deleted.
Input  Display  
125  125.  
12.  
3  123.  
478  478.  
47.  
4.  
56  456.  
579.  (123 + 456 = 579)  
1.456 19  1.456E 019  
1.456E 001.  
2  1.456E 012.  
1000  1456000000.  (1.456 × 10^{12} / 1000 = 1456000000) 
Input: 12 45.6 32.1 789 741 213  
Result: 286.5 
a.  Input: 841 586 12 
Result: 41068.833333333  
b.  Input: 427 54 32 7 39 2 
Result: 595.85714285714 
Note that multiplication and division have priority over addition and subtraction. Internally, the calculator first calculates the multiplication and division.
Multiplication with a constant:Input: 3 5  Result: 15  
Input: 10  Result: 30 
Division with a constant:
The value entered after the division sign acts as a constant.
Input: 15 3  Result: 5  
Input: 30  Result: 10 
Note:
Depending on the priority, the calculator puts some calculations in pending
state. In case of chain calculations, the last calculation instruction, taking
into account the priority rules, and the relevant numeric value are retained
and can be used for further calculations or as constants, respectively.
a + b × c =  + bc  (Constant addition)  
a × b ÷ c =  ÷ c  (Constant division)  
a ÷ b × c =  a/b ×  (Constant multiplication)  
a × b  c =   c  (Constant subtraktion) 
The independently accessible memory can be maintained with the three keys ,
and . Before
starting a calculation clear the memory by pressing
and .
If a value other than zero is stored in memory ""
is displayed.
Input: 12 5  
Result: 17  
For subtraction enter: 2 5  
Result of this equation: 7  
Enter to recall memory contents: 10 will be displayed.  
Input: 12 2  
Result: 24 (replaces 10 in memory)  
Input: 6 2  
Result: 4 : 28 
To subtract a value from memory contents, the keys and can be pressed.
In addition to the memory which can be modified with the
key, there are 10 memory slots available which can be modified with
to .
To read the contents of these memories you have to press the keys
to
just like for the independently accessible
memory.
To calculate trigonometric and inverse trigonometric equations and for coordinate transformations the angular mode has to be assigned. The assignment of the angular mode DEG, RAD or GRAD happens by pressing the key.
Exercise: sin 30° + cos 40°  
Angular mode to DEG  
Input: 30 + 40  Result: 1.266044443119  
Exercise: cos 0,25  
Angular mode to RAD  
Input: 0.25  Result: 0.7071067811865 
Exercise: sin^{1} 0,5  
Angular mode to DEG  
Input: 0.5  Result: 30  
Exercise: cos^{1} 1  
Angular mode to RAD  
Input: 1  To input a negative number, press the key after entering the number. 

Result: 3.1415926535898 (Value of ) 
The results of inverse trigonometric functions are only valid between the following ranges:
= sin^{1} x, = tan^{1} x  = cos^{1} x  
DEG: 90 <= <= 90 [°]  DEG: 0 <= <= 180 [°]  
RAD: /2 <= <= /2 [rad]  RAD: 0 <= <= [rad]  
GRAD: 100 <= <= 100 [g]  GRAD: 0 <= <= 200 [g] 
Exercise: sinh 4  
Input: 4  Result: 27.289917197128  
Exercise: sinh^{1} 9  
Input: 9  Result: 2.8934439858859 
Exercise: 20^{2}  
Input: 20  Result: 400  
Exercise: 3^{3} and 3^{4}  
Input: 3 3  Result: 27  
Input: 3 4  Result: 81 
Exercise: Square root of 25  
Input: 25  Result: 5  
Exercise: Cube root of 27  
Input: 27  Result: 3  
Exercise: Fourth root of 81  
Input: 81 4  Result: 3 
Exercise: ln 21, log 173  
Natural Logarithms  
Input: 21  Result: 3.0445224377234  
Common Logarithms  
Input: 173  Result: 2.2380461031288 
Exercise: e^{3,0445}  
Input: 3.0445  Result: 20.999528813094 (see ln 21)  
Exercise: 10^{2,238}  
Input: 2.238  Result: 172.98163592151 (see log 173) 
Exercise: 1/6 + 1/7  
Input: 6 7  Result: 0.3095238095238 
Exercise: 170!  
Input: 170  
Result: 7.257415615308E 306 (= 7,257415615308 × 10^{306}) 
On calculating the factorial it is easily possible to overflow the calculation limits of the SC103PU which results in the error indication "E". The section Calculation Range discusses the calculation limits of the calculator.
Exercise: _{8}P_{3} = 8!/(83)!  
Input: 8 8 3  
Result: 336 
Exercise: 45% of 2780 (2.780 × 45/100)  
Input: 2780 45  Result: 1251  
Exercise: 200  200 × 30/100  
Input: 200 30  Result: 140 
To convert an angle or time (°, ', ", rsp. hours, minutes, seconds) to its decimal equivalent the degrees have to be given as integer portion and the minutes and seconds as decimal digits.
Exercise: Transformation of 12°47'52" to its decimal equivalent
Input: 12.4752  Result: 12.797777777778 
When converting decimal degrees to the equivalent degrees/minutes/seconds, the
answer is broken down:
integer portion = degrees; 1st and 2nd decimal digits = minutes; 3rd and 4th
digits = seconds; and 5th through end decimal digits are decimal seconds.
Exercise: Conversion of the decimal angle 24.7256 to its degree/minute/second equivalent
Input: 24.7256  Result: 24.433216 or 24°43'32" 
A horse has leap times of 2 minutes 25 seconds, 2 minutes 38 seconds and 2 minutes 22 seconds. What is the average running time? Result 2: 0.0412037037037
Input: 0.0225 0.0238 0.0222  
Result 1: 0.1236111111111  
Input: 3  
Input:  
Result 3: 0.0228333333333 or the average time is 2 minutes 28 seconds. 
Converting rectangular coordinates to polar (x, y r, ).
DEG: RAD: GRAD: 
0 <=   <= 180 0 <=   <= 0 <=   <= 200 
Convert rectangular coordinates x = 6 and y = 4
to polar coordinates.
Angular mode: DEG
Input: 6 4  Result: 7.211102550928 (r)  
Input:  Result: 33.69006752598 () 
Calculate the magnitude and direction (phase) in a vector i = 12 + j9
Input: 12 9  Result: 15 (r)  
Input:  Result: 36.869897645844 () 
Converting polar coordinates to rectangular (r, x, y).
Solve for P(14, /3), r = 14,
0 /3
Angular mode: RAD
Input: 3 14  
Result: 7 (x)  
Input:  
Result: 12.124355652982 (y) 
Usage of the parenthesis keys and
is required if series of calculations are combined together and the priority of
operations has to be changed.
After pressing the key, "( )" is displayed
in the top of the display.
Calculations between parenthesis have priority over all other calculations. The
parentheses can be nested more than once. First the calculations between the
innermost parenthesis will be made.
Exercise: 12 + 42 ÷ (8  6)  
Input: 12 42 8  
Result: 33 
Exercise: 126 ÷ {(3 + 4) × (3  1)}  
Input: 126 3 4 3 1  
Result: 9 
Hint:
It is not neccessary to close the parenthesis immediately before the
key (or key).
The number of decimal digits in a calculation result can be specified; to do this use the key in combination with the keys to . In this case, the display has to be switched to fixed point (FIX), scientific notation (SCI) or engineering notation (ENG).
No decimal digits. (The number will be roundet to the next integer number.) 

One decimal digit. (The number will be roundet to the first decimal digit.) 

Nine decimal digits. (The number will be roundet to the 9th decimal digit.) 
To clear the TAB setting (definition of places after decimal digit) leave the calculator application and restart it again. Then the normal display will be shown again.
Example:
9  
0.5 9  0.055555556 (FIX mode) (The number is roundet to the 9th place after decimal digit.) 

5.555555556E002 (SCI mode) (The mantissa is roundet to the 9th place after decimal digit.) 

5.556E002 (SCI mode) (The mantissa is roundet to the third place after decimal digit.) 

55.556E003 (ENG mode)  
0.0555555555556 
The program is provided with a function that judges the priority level of individual calculations; thus, you can enter your calculations in the same order as in a given mathematical formula. The following table shows the priority level of individual calculations.
Example:
Key operation and sequence of calculation in
5 + 2 × sin 30 + 24 × 5^{3} =
The numbers  show
the sequence of the calculations.
When calculations with higher priority are executed, those with lower priority
must be saved in the meantime. The program is equipped with additional memories
for such pending operations.
As these memories are also used for calculations with parentheses, calculations
can be performed according to a given mathematical formula unless parentheses
and pending operations exceed 30 levels in total.
Example:
Pending of 1 level  
Pending of 2 levels  
Pending of 3 levels  
By pressing the key, 3 pending levels are reached. After pressing the key the calculations "y^{x}" will be performed with highest priority and "×" with the same priority. Thus, after pressing the key, two pending levels remain. 
Example:
i)  4 numbers and operations stay pending.  
ii)  After pressing the key first the calculation between parentheses 3  4 ÷ 5 will be performed; 2 calculations stay pending. 
3. LOGIC MODE 
Computer engineers and programmers are in need of simple conversions between various numeric systems as well as for calculations with boolean logic. With the calculator SC103PU this problem is solved by providing the LOGIC mode. The LOGIC mode can be selected by tapping on the corresponding field at the right border.
Note:
You should first read the sections "Calculations"
and "Basic Usage" in the chapter "3.
SCIENTIFIC MODE", to get familiar with the operation of the
calculator and its basic functions before you use the LOGIC mode.
This is how the calculator looks in LOGIC mode (hexadecimal notation selected):
On color devices  On B/W devices  

The calculator can operate with integer values up to a bit width of 32 bits in four different numeric systems.
To convert a number to its hexadecimal equivalent; at the same time the calculator will be switched to hexadecimal notation HEX. ( is shown in the displayed.)  
To convert a number to its decimal equivalent; at the same time the calculator will be switched to decimal notation DEC. ( is shown in the display.)  
To convert a number to its octal equivalent; at the same time the calculator will be switched to octal notation OCT. ( is shown in the display.)  
To convert a nubmer to its binary equivalent; at the same time the calculator will be switched to binary notation BIN. ( is shown in the display.) 
Exercise:
Conversion from decimal 30 to hexadecimal notation:
Press key if calculator is not currently in
decimal notation ( is displayed).
Input  Display  
30  1E 
Exercise:
Further conversion of hexadecimal 1E to binary format:
Input  Display  
11110 
The hexadecimal notation system is mainly used in computer programming. The base for a hexadecimal number is 16; hexadecimal numbers consist of the digits 0 to 9 and the major letters A to F, which stand for the numbers 10 to 15 in the decimal system. Keys for the letters A to F will be shown as soon as the calculator is in hexadecimal notation. The symbol means, that numerical values on the display are shown in hexadecimal notation and that basic integer arithmetic and boolean operations can be performed. 
In LOGIC mode even in decimal notation only integer values with a bit width of a maximum of 32 bits can be handled. In decimal notation only the keys for the digits 0 to 9 are shown. The symbol means, that numerical values on the display are shown in decimal notation and that basic integer arithmetic and boolean operations can be performed. 
The base for a octal number is 8; octal numbers consist of the digits 0 to 7. In octal notation only the keys for the digits 0 to 7 are shown. The symbol means, that numerical values on the display are shown in octal notation and that basic integer arithmetic and boolean operations can be performed. 
The binary notation system is mainly used in computer programming. The base for a binary number is 2; binary numbers consist of the digits 0 and 1. In binary notation only the keys for the digits 0 and 1 are shown. A smaller font is used so all of the 32 positions can be displayed in one row. Additionally, a ruler is shown above the digits to support the identification of nibbles, bytes and words. The symbol means that numerical values on the display are shown in binary notation and that basic integer arithmetic and boolean operations can be performed. 
In the binary notation system a digit can be swapped from 0 to 1 and vice versa
by tapping on the digit position below the ruler. If an empty area is tapped
then the digit 1 will be set there. With this functionality it is possible to
directly modify the bits of a value.
The calculator can be switched to bit widths of 8, 16 and 32 bits which are commonly used in the computer industry. With the key the next higher and with the key the next lower bit width is selected. The currently selected bit width is shown in the display.
With the key you can switch leading zeros on and off. Press the key once to show numbers with leading zeros filled to the selcted bit width ( will be shown in the display). Press the key once more to switch back to normal number display. If is activated then leading zeros can be entered during input.
Example:
Settings: , notation,
Input  Display  
1AB  1AB  
01AB  
0000 01AB  
Input  Display  
000AB8  00 0AB8  
0000 0AB8  
456  002E 79D0  
2E 79D0 
With the key, the calculator can be switched between signed and unsigned mode. In the display the symbol appears if the signed mode is active.
Signs are only shown in HEX, DEC and OCT notations. In the BIN notation only the bits are shown, always without a sign.
With the key the sign of a number can be changed. If the sign of a positive number is changed, the 2's complement of the number is calculated. In signed mode the number will then be shown as negative number in unsigned mode as 2's complement.
Example:
Settings: , notation,
Input  Display  
180  180  
FE80  
1111111010000000 
The selected bit width in combination with the sign mode has influence on the number range which can be handled. In contrast to the SCIENTIFIC mode, too big or too small numbers do not lead to an error condition in LOGIC mode but to an overflow.
Bit Width  Num. Sys.  Sign Mode  Number Range  

8 BIT  HEX  0  ~  FF  
8 BIT  HEX  SIGN  80  ~  7F 
8 BIT  DEC  0  ~  255  
8 BIT  DEC  SIGN  128  ~  127 
8 BIT  OCT  0  ~  377  
8 BIT  OCT  SIGN  200  ~  177 
8 BIT  BIN  0  ~  11111111  
8 BIT  BIN  SIGN  0  ~  11111111 
16 BIT  HEX  0  ~  FFFF  
16 BIT  HEX  SIGN  8000  ~  7FFF 
16 BIT  DEC  0  ~  65535  
16 BIT  DEC  SIGN  32768  ~  32767 
16 BIT  OCT  0  ~  17 7777  
16 BIT  OCT  SIGN  10 0000  ~  7 7777 
16 BIT  BIN  0  ~  1111111111111111  
16 BIT  BIN  SIGN  0  ~  1111111111111111 
32 BIT  HEX  0  ~  FFFF FFFF  
32 BIT  HEX  SIGN  8000 0000  ~  7FFF FFFF 
32 BIT  DEC  0  ~  4294967295  
32 BIT  DEC  SIGN  2147483648  ~  2147483647 
32 BIT  OCT  0  ~  377 7777 7777  
32 BIT  OCT  SIGN  200 0000 0000  ~  177 7777 7777 
32 BIT  BIN  0  ~  11111111111111111111111111111111  
32 BIT  BIN  SIGN  0  ~  11111111111111111111111111111111 
Exercise:
Solve of 250 + 15 with unsigned 8 bit arithmetic (overflow
calculation):
Press the key to select decimal notation (
is shown in the display).
Press the until
is shown in display.
With the key select unsigned mode (symbol
cleared in display).
Input  Display  
250 15  9 
Exercise:
Display the result of the last calculation in binary notation:
Input  Display  
1001 
The arithmetic operations addition, subtraction, multiplication and division can be used like in SCIENTIFIC mode. But only integer values can be handled.
Exercise:
Addition of two hexadecimal numbers
A4 + BA =
Input  Display  
0  
A4 BA  15E 
Exercise:
4 × 4 =
Input  Display  
0  
4  10 
Exercise:
32 bit multiplication of the octal number 73 with the binary number 110
and display of the result as a decimal number
73 oct × 110 bin =
Press until is
shown in display
Input  Display  
0  
73  111011  
110  101100010  
354 
Exercise:
(12 + D) × B =
Input  Display  
0  
12 D B 
155 
Exercise:
43A    3CB  =  
+)  A38    2FB  = 
  
total 
Input  Display  
0.  
43A 3CB  6F  
A38 2FB  73D  
7AC 
The following hints have to be noted:
Examples:
Input: E 3  Result: 4  
Input: B 3 2  Result: 6 
With the modulo operation the remainder of a division can be computed.
Input: E 3  Result: 2 
By pressing the key it is possible to calculate
the complement of a number in a simple way.
Settings: Unsigned mode (symbol is not shown,
notation,
Input: AB  Result: FFFF FF55 
The operators of the boolean algebra AND, OR, XOR (exclusive or) and NOT can be used. In a logical operation two numbers will be transformed to binary representation (2's complement) and the logical relation will then be evaluated for every bit pair.
The following section will shown the results of the logical operators for these bit evaluations:
AND  OR  XOR  NOT  




After every bit pair has been assigned the corresponding result (a 1 or a 0) according to the above table, the resulting binary number will be converted back to the selected numeric system. This number is the result of the logical operation.
Example:41 AND 27 gives 9 

Input: 41 27  Result: 9  
41 OR 27 gives 59 

Input: 41 27  Result: 59  
41 XOR 27 gives 50 

Input: 41 27  Result: 50  
NOT 3 gives 4 (2's complement) 

Input:3  Result: 4 
NOT x can generaly be computed with the equation NOT x = (x + 1).
During the bit shift right operation the single bits of a value will be shiftet to the right by the given amount of positions. This is equivalent to a division by the power of 2.
Example:decimal  binary  

before shifting  80  01010000  
after shifting  10  00001010 
Input:  Display:  
80 3  10 
In signed mode () an arithmetical shift right will be performed whereas in unsigned mode a logical shift right is executed. Arithmetical shift means that the sign of a number is retained; logical shift right always results in a cleared sign bit, treating all bits equal.
Example:Input:  Result:  
0  
120  120  
10001000  
1  11000100  
60 
Input:  Result:  
196  
2  49  
110001 
During the bit shift left operation the single bits of a value will be shiftet the given amount of positions to the left. This is equivalent to a multiplication with the power of 2.
Example:decimal  binary  

before shifting  3  0000 0011  
after shifting  12  0000 1100 
Input:  Display:  
3 2  12 
Example:
Settings: Unsigned mode (symbol is not shown),
notation,
Input  Display  
1234ABCD  1234 ABCD  
CDAB 3412  
3412  
1234 
In 8 bit notation the nibbles will be swapped:
Example:
Settings: Unsigned mode (symbol is not shown),
notation,
Input  Display  
AB  AB  
BA 
During the processing of complex expressions the calculator follows a set of predefined priorities which determine the sequence in which the operators have to be applied. In LOGIC mode, the same rules for priority of operators and parenthesis are valid as described in SCIENTIFIC mode in section "Priority Levels of Operations" but the additional boolean operators have to be taken into account:
1. Functions like not or x^{2}
2. ×, ÷, mod
3. +, 
4. «, »
5. and
6. xor
7. or
8. =, M+
(Calculations which are on the same priority level are executed in sequence.)
5. UNITS MODE 
The UNITS mode offers easy conversions between different units and calculations with mixed units. The conversion factors and unit symbols can be freely defined by the user. The calculator is shipped with 84 physical units, 16 SI prefixes, the 12 Euro related national currencies and the Euro predefined. Each unit rsp. currency is assigned to a key. The UNITS mode can be selected by tapping on the corresponding field at the right border.
Note:
You should first read the sections "Calculations"
and "Basic Usage" in the chapter "3.
SCIENTIFIC MODE", to get familiar with the operation of the
calculator and its basic functions before you use the UNITS mode.
This is how the calculator looks like in UNITS mode:
On color devices  On B/W devices  

The UNITS Mode offers 10 unit sets each with 17 unit keys. Nine of the unit sets
are predefined by default. The first unit set is predefined with currency units
and the remaining with physical units.
The following table shows all predefined unit sets and their units:
Unit Set  Unit  Unit Symbol  Category  Factor  Offset 

CURRENCY 
Euro  €*  Currency  1  0 
Austrian Schilling  ATS  13.7603  
Belgian Franc  BEF  40.3399  
German Mark  DEM  1.95583  
Spanish Peseta  ESP  166.386  
Finnish Markka  FIM  5.94573  
French Franc  FRF  6.55957  
Greek Drachma  GRD  340.75  
Irish Punt  IEP  0.787564  
Italian Lira  ITL  1936.27  
Luxembourg Franc  LUF  40.3399  
Dutch Guilder  NLG  2.20371  
Portuguese Escudo  PTE  200.482  
LENGTH  micrometre  µm  Length  1×10^{6}  0 
millimetre  mm  1000  
centimetre  cm  100  
decimetre  dm  10  
metre  m  1  
kilometre  km  1×10^{3}  
mil  mil  1/2.54×10^{5}  
inch  in  1/2.54×10^{2}  
foot  ft  1/3.048×10^{1}  
yard  yd  1/9.144×10^{1}  
mile (international)  mi  1/1609.344  
mile (nautical)  nmi  1/1852.0  
astronomical unit  au  6.684587153547039139×10^{12}  
AREA 
square millimetre  mm²  Area  1×10^{6}  0 
square centimetre  cm²  1×10^{4}  
square metre  m²  1  
are  a  1×10^{2}  
hectare  ha  1×10^{4}  
square kilometre  km²  1×10^{6}  
square inch  in²  1/6.4516×10^{4}  
square foot (international)  ft²  1/9.290304×10^{2}  
square yard  yd²  1/8.3612736×10^{1}  
Joch (Austria)  Joch  1.0/5754.642  
acre (Morgen)  acre  1/4046.85644642784  
square mile (international)  mi²  1/1609.344^{2}  
VOLUME  cubic centimetre  cm³  Volume  1×10^{3}  0 
litre  l  1  
cubic metre  m³  1×10^{3}  
teaspoon (US)  tsp  0.264172052358148×768  
tablespoon (US)  tbsp  0.264172052358148×256  
cubic inch  in³  0.264172052358148×231  
fluid ounce (US)  oz  0.264172052358148×128  
cup  cu  0.264172052358148×16  
pint, liquid (US)  pt  0.264172052358148×8  
quart, liquid (US)  qt  0.264172052358148×4  
gallon, liquid (US)  gal  0.264172052358148  
cubic foot  ft³  0.0353146667214886  
MASS (Masse und Temperatur) 
milligram  mg  Mass  1×10^{6}  0 
carat  ct  5×10^{3}  
gram  g  1×10^{3}  
kilogram  kg  1  
metric ton  t  1×10^{33}  
grain  gr  7000×(35.2739616/16)  
ounce (avoirdupois)  oz  35.2739616  
ounce (troy)  ozt  32.15074625  
pound (troy)  lbt  32.15074625/12  
pound (avoirdupois)  lb  35.2739616/16  
short ton (US, 2000lb)  tn  35.2739616/(16×2000)  
long ton (UK, 2240lb)  l.tn  35.2739616/(16×2240)  
PWR/ENERGY (Power and Energy) 
watt  W  Power  1  0 
kilowatt  kW  1×10^{3}  
Pferdestärken  PS  1.359619307×10^{3}  
horsepower  HP  1.341021859×10^{3}  
joule  J  Energy  1  0  
kilojoule  J  1×10^{3}  
calorie  cal  1/4.1868  
kilocalorie  kcal  1/4186.8  
watt hour  Wh  1/3600  
kilowatt hour  kWh  1/3600000  
electron volt  ev  1/1.60217733×10^{19}  
foot pound weight  ftlb  1/1.355818  
british thermal unit  BTU  1/1.05505585262e+03  
TEMP/PRESS (Temperatur und Druck) 
kelvin  K  Temperature  1  273.15 
degree Fahrenheit  °F  1.8  32  
degree Celsius  °C  1  0  
degree Réamur  °r  0.8  0  
pascal  PA  Pressure  1×10^{5}  0  
bar  bar  1  
atmosphere standard  atm  1/1.01325  
atmosphere technical  at  1.0197162  
millimetre of mercury (Torr)  mmHg  750.06158  
pound per square inch  psi  14.50377439  
inch of mercury  inHg  29.529983  
foot of water  ftW  33.4560927  
SPEED/TIME 
metre per second  m/s  Velocity  1  0 
kilometre per hour  km/h  3.6  
knot  knot  1.9438445  
mile per hour  mi/h  1/0.44704  
foot per second  ft/s  1/0.3048  
second  s  Time  86400  0  
minute  min  1440  
hour  h  24  
day  day  1  
year (365 days)  year  1/365  
SI PREFIX  atto  a  SI Prefix  1×10^{18}  0 
femto  f  1×10^{15}  
pico  p  1×10^{12}  
nano  n  1×10^{9}  
micro  µ  1×10^{6}  
milli  m  1×10^{3}  
zenti  c  1×10^{2}  
deci  d  1×10^{1}  
Basis  base  1  
deka  da  1×10^{1}  
hekto  h  1×10^{2}  
kilo  k  1×10^{3}  
mega  M  1×10^{6}  
giga  G  1×10^{9}  
tera  T  1×10^{12}  
peta  P  1×10^{15}  
exa  E  1×10^{18} 
* On devices which are not equipped with a Euro symbol (€), that is, devices with a PalmOS version less than 3.3, EUR will be displayed instead of the Euro symbol.
Notes:
If the units mode is selected from scientific or logic mode by pressing the field labeled UNITS on the right border, then the recently used unit set will be selected.
In units mode the field labeled UNITS is provided with two arrows, one pointing up an one pointing down. By pressing this arrows the next or previous unit set can be selected.
If in units mode the UNITS label itself is pressed, a selection list with all
available unit sets is displayed and the desired unit set can be directly
selected.
In unit mode for each unit set a "one line" or "two lines" view mode can be selected independently. By default the "two lines" view mode is selected for the first unit set which holds the currency units. All other unit sets use the "one line" view mode by default.
The same unit set shown in the two possible view modes:
One line view mode  Two lines view mode  

With the menu item "One/Two Lines Display" in the "Options" menu the calculator can be toggled between "one line" and "two lines" view mode.
Alternate ways to change the view mode:
The "one line" view mode of the UNITS mode can be seen as extension to the SCIENTIFIC mode where unit conversions can be performed. The actual value will be simply convertet without permanently assigning it to a unit. For this reason, opposite to the "two line" view mode there are no restrictions in the calculations which can be performed.
Following the most important keys will be outlined:
* Unit keys , , etc. 
With the unit keys a displayed number can be convertet from one unit to another. The key area with the unit keys is surrounded by a thin line. For conversion two unit keys have to be pressed in sequence. The shown number will be converted from the first into the second unit. A conversion can only be performed between units of the same category.
Example:
Conversion from 12.5 inch to millimetre.
Input  Display  
12.5  12.5  
12.5  in  
317.5 
Result: 12.5 inch are 317.5 mm
How many feet an inch are 1.75 m?
Input  Display  
1.75  1.75  m  
5.741469816273  Result 1: 5 feet  
5  0.741469816273  ft  
8.897637795276  Result 2: 8.9 inch 
Result: 1.75 m are 5 feet and 8.9 inch.
* (switching into "two lines" view mode) 
With the key and a following unit key the calculator can be switched from "one line" view mode to "two lines" view mode. For the second display line the pressed unit will be selected. For the first display line a unit compatible to the unit of the second line will be used. If in "one line" view mode a unit ist currently specified then this unit will also be used for the first display line in "two lines" view mode if it is compatible with the one selected for the second line.
Example:
Conversion of 3.8, 14.6 und 26.6 square metres to the corresponding
square yards by using the "two lines" view mode and thereafter switching
back to "one line" view mode.
Input  Display  
0. 


3.8  3.8  
3.8  m²  
3.8 4.544762175944 
m² yd² 

0. 0. 
m² 

14.6  14.6 17.461454676 
m² yd² 

0. 0. 
m² yd² 

26.6  26.6 31.81333523161 
m² yd² 

26.6 
The "two lines" view mode is especially usefull for fast and easy conversion between two units. In the display two lines will be shown. User inputs are displayed in the first line. In the second line the entered or calculated value can instantly be viewed in a different unit. The numbers displayed in the two lines always represent the same value but in different units.
Following the most important keys will be outlined:
* Unit keys , etc. 
With the unit keys the unit of the number in the first display line can be selected. The key area with the unit keys is surrounded by a thin line. By pressing the key for example the currency DEM will be assigned as unit to the value oft the first line in the display. During input of a number the unit can be assigned at any time without effecting the numerical value.
* (specify second line) 
With the key you specify the second display line. The consecutively pressed key will the be related to the second display line instead of the first display line. So by pressing of the currency unit ATS will be assigned to the second line. If the unit of the second line will be changed then the numerical value of the second line will also be changed because the value of the first line will be converted to the new unit of the second line.
Example:
How many Euro (€), are 123.5 Austrian Schilling (ATS).
Input  Display  
123.5  123.5 8.98 
ATS € 
Showing the 123.5 ATS of the last example in BEF:
Input  Display  
23.5 362.05 
ATS BEF 
To start a new conversion, press the key first to clear the display and start a new input.
Input  Display  
0. 0.00 
ATS BEF 

527.9  527.9 1547.60 
ATS BEF 

527.9 38.36 
ATS € 
* (exchange units) 
With this key the units of the first line and the second line can be exchanged. Only the units will be new assigned. The values will not be exchanged.
Example:
Conversions between various currencies.
Input  Display  
0. 0.00 
DEM ATS 

12.6  12.6 88.65 
DEM ATS 

12.6 0.92 
ATS DEM 

0. 0.00 
ATS DEM 

100  100. 14.21 
ATS DEM 
* (clear unit assignement) 
If the key is pressed, the unit assignement for the first display line will be removed. So the number in the first display line has no unit. Simultaneously the second display line will be hidden ("" will be shown) because a value without a unit can not be converted to a number with a unit.
By pressing of , the calculator will be switched into "one line" view mode.
* (specifies the number of decimal digits) 
In combination with a number key, this key can be used to specify the number of decimal digits (digits after the decimal point). In combination with the key, the number of decimal digits for the second display line can be specified.
To remove the fixed number of digits after the decimal point and switch back to floating point mode press .
Note: The number of decimal digits can not be set during input of a number only after a calculation or after pressing the key.
1. Specification of 3 decimal digits for the first line.
Input  Display  
0. 0.00 
ATS DEM 

3  0.000 0.00 
ATS DEM 

5 8  0.625 0.09 
ATS DEM 
2. Specification of 5 decimal digits for the second line.
Input  Display  
5  0.625 0.08883 
ATS DEM 
3. Floating point display for the second line.
Input  Display  
0.625 0.088834818282 
ATS DEM 
In "two lines" view mode of the UNITS mode the basic operations plus percent calculations can be performed as shown in SCIENTIFIC mode. However, units will be taken into account. So it is possible to perform calculations with mixed units.
Example:
Calculate 120 ATS + 20.5 DEM and show the result in DEM and
Euro.
Input  Display  
0. 0.00 
ATS € 

120  120. 8.72 
ATS € 

120. 8.72 
ATS € 

20.5  20.5 1.49 
ATS € 

20.5 10.48 
DEM € 

37.55628511006 19.20 
DEM € 
The result of calculations with units is displayed in the unit of the second operand, if one has been assigned. Otherwise, the unit of the first operand will be used for the result. Not all unit combinations are valid in calculations. The following table shows combinations of operations and their result units:
Unit of operand 1  Operation  Unit of operand 2  Unit of result 

A  +  B  B 
A  none  (illegal op.)  
none  B  (illegal op.)  
none  none  none  
A    B  B 
A  none  (illegal op.)  
none  B  (illegal op.)  
none  none  none  
A  ×  B  (illegal op.) 
A  none  A  
none  B  B  
none  none  none  
A  ÷  B  none 
A  none  A  
none  B  (illegal op.)  
none  none  none 
By trying to apply a illegal calculation, the calculator will be set into an error condition and the symbol "E" will be displayed. The error condition can be cleared by pressing the key.
On multiplications and divisions the calculator selects no unit for the second operand by default. But a unit can be assigned to the second operand explicitely.
Example:
Input  Display  
0. 0.00 
ATS € 

1000  1000. 72.67 
ATS € 

1000. 72.67 
ATS € 

2  2.  
500. 36.34 
ATS € 

Input  Display  
0. 0.00 
ATS € 

1000  1000. 72.67 
ATS € 

1000. 72.67 
ATS € 

20  20.  
20. 10.23 
DEM € 

7.106785462526 
After pressing an operator key (, etc.) or the keys rsp. the unit assigned to the value in the first line of the display will be shown in bold face. This indicates, that the unit is dedicated to the value. Pressing a unit key in this situation yields to a conversion of the value to the new unit and not the simple assignement of a new unit to the value.
During the processing of complex expressions the calculator follows a set of predefined priorities which determine the sequence in which the operators have to be applied. In UNITS mode, the same rules for priority of operators and parenthesis are valid as described in SCIENTIFIC mode in section "Priority Levels of Operations".
The usage of the memories in UNITS mode is basically the same as in SCIENTIFIC mode. With a value will be stored in the independently accessible memory and with a value can be added to the current memory contents. Note that units are ignored when values are added to memory. No unit conversion is performed. The memory contents can be retrieved with the key like usual.
In addition to the independently accessible memory, 10 memory slots are available as in SCIENTIFIC mode which can be accessed with rsp. followed by a digit key.
In "two lines" view mode normally the value in the first display line will be stored in the memory. However, by using the key the value of the second display line can be stored. Press one of the following key sequences: , for independently accessible memory or followed by a digit key to store the value of the second line in one of the 10 memory slots.
During input of a calculation the calculator can be switched between UNITS and SCIENTIFIC mode at any time without loosing the pending operations an entered digits. Especially the "one line" view mode can be used in combination with the SCIENTIFIC mode.
Example:
How much feet and inch is the diagonal c of a rectangle with the side
length of a = 30 feet, 5 inch and b = 13 feet,
8 inch.
Formula: c = sqrt(a^{2} + b^{2}
)
Input  Display  
0.  
30  30.  
5  5.  in  
0.416666666667  
30.41666666667  
925.1736111111  
925.1736111111  
0.  
13  13.  
8  8.  in  
0.666666666667  
13.66666666667  
938.8402777778  
Switch into SCIENTIFIC mode.  
30.640500612388  Result: 30 feet  
30  
0.6405006123885  
Switch into UNITS mode (LENGTH).  
7.686007348662  Result: 7.686 inch 
Result: 30 feet, 7.686 inch
It is always possible to add new units to the already predefined units. Further it is possible to change or delete the predefined units.
The calculator uses the following forumula to convert from unit_{1} to unit_{2}:
value_{2} = (value_{1}  offset_{1}) / factor_{1} × factor_{2} + offset_{2}
If a unit should be defined factor and offset relating to the other units of the same category have to be specified. In most cases for each category a base unit with a factor of 1 is defined. The offset is needed, if the units have different base points which is the case for example with the temerature units °C, °F and K:
Faktor  Offset  

°C  1.  0 
°F  1.8  32 
K  1.  273.15 
With the unit
definition form a new unit can be defined, an existing unit can be modified or
deleted. With the menu item "Define Unit Key..." in the "Options"
menu you switch into the unit definition mode.
Here, the unit key to be defined can be selected by pressing the key. All unit keys are located in the bordered region. An undefined and therefore unlabeled unit key can also be selected to define its unit.
After selecting the unit key, the unit definition form appears. There the parameters of the unit can be changed and entered. With the key "Delete.." in the form, a unit definition can be erased.
To define a unit, a unit symbol consisting of up to four charachters must be
entered, which will be used as label for the unit key. The unit has to be
assigned to one of the 15 categories. Only units of the same category can be
converted into each other. Also, the conversion factor and offset related to
the base unit has to be specified. The base unit is displayed if one exists.
The calculator recognizes the base unit of a categoy by its conversion factor
of 1.
Note: An alternative way to open the unit definition form for a unit key is to press the unit key for a period of at least 2 seconds and then releasing the key.
Example:
The currency US dollar should be added to the already defined currencies. The
unit key above the
key should be used. The conversion factor should be 1.20.
In the menu "Options"
select the menu item "Define Unit Key..." and then press the unit key
you want to define.
The unit definition
form appears where the currency symbol US$ can be entered under "New unit symbol".
Optionally a descriptive text can be entered under "Description". It has
no further function. As "Conversion factor" 1.20 should be entered.
Currency units do not need any offset so we leave this field with value 0. For
the "Category", "Currency" has to be selected, so that the new currency
unit can be convertet to the already defined currencies. By pressing "OK" the
unit definition form will be closed and the unit is defined.
The new unit is defined. It can be used:
Input  Display  
0. 0.00 
€ US$ 

1  1. 1.20 
€ US$ 

0. 0.00 
DEM US$ 

64.55  64.55 39.60 
DEM US$ 
Already
existing unit sets can be renamed an new units sets can be defined. Further
unit sets can be hidden. For this the unit set definition form has to be opened
via the menu item "Name Unit Sets..." in the "Options" menu.
Here the names of the unit sets can be entered. There are 10 unit sets available. By default nine of them are predefined according the following table:
Name of the unit set  Description 

CURRENCY  Currency units 
LENGTH  Length units 
AREA  Area units 
VOLUME  Volume units 
MASS  Mass (Weight) units 
PWR/ENERGY  Power and Energy (Work) units 
TEMP/PRESS  Temperature and pressure units 
SPEED/TIME  Speed (velocity) and time units 
SI PREFIX  SI prefixes 
For every unit set it can be selected if it should be visible or not. Invisible
unit sets can not be used. Unit sets without a name can not be made visible.
6. INPUTS 
Usually, the digits and operators will be entered by pressing the displayed keys. But all digits and some operators can also be entered using the Graffiti® region of the Palm device or pasted from the clipboard. Values can also be copied to the clipboard. Further it is possible to directly modify the contents of the memories in a special form.
A memory manipulation
form can be opened via the menu item "Memory..." in the "Edit
" menu. In this form the contents of all memories can be seen simultaneously
and they can also be modified.
In the first line the
actual display value is displayed. In the following line the contents of the
independently accessible memory (M) is shown, followed by the 10 memories (1 to
9 and 0) which are assigned to the number keys.
The actual display value can be stored in the independently accessible memory
by pressing the key and can be restored using the
key .
In addition to the independently accessible memory there are 10 memory slots
are available which can be modified with
to . To read the
contents of these memories you have to press the keys
to .
The memory contents can also be changed directly using Graffiti®.
By pressing "OK" the memory form will be closed and all entered values will be
written to the memories.
By pressing rsp. followed by a digit key or when selecting "OK", the entered values will be written back to the memories. But first it will be checked if the entered data is a valid value. If no valid value is entered an error requester will be displayed. It can be closed by pressing "OK" to correct the invalid input by hand. But if "Restore from memory" will be pressed, the last memory contents will be restored and the input will be lost.
In the shown example a wrong input is done for memory location 2.
Following there is a table containing the keys which have been assigned a symbol which can be entered using Graffiti®
SCIENTIFIC and CURRENCY Mode  LOGIC Mode  

Key:  Symbol:  Key:  Symbol:  
to  "0" to "9"  to  "0" to "9"  
".", ","  to  "a" to "f", "A" to "F"  
"_"  "_"  
" ", "C"  " "  
Backspace  Backspace  
"/"  "/"  
"*"  "*"  
""  ""  
"+"  "+"  
"=", Enter  "=", Enter  
"(", "[", "{"  "(", "[", "{"  
")", "]", "}"  ")", "]", "}"  
"%"  "&"  
"^" (only SCIENTIFIC)  "n", "N", "~"  
"!" (only SCIENTIFIC)  "o", "O", ""  
"x", "X", "^"  
"m", "M", "%"  
"l", "L", "<">  
"r", "R", ">" 
With the menu items in
the menu "Edit", the value currently shown on the display can be cut or copied
to the clipboard or a value in the clipboard can be pasted to the SC103PU.
7. ERRORS 
While in an error condition the display shows the symbol "E":
An error will be raised from a calculation or command which exceeds the capacity of the program. An error can be cleared by pressing the key.
1.7976931348624×10^{308} < x<= 2.23×10^{308}
for a negative x
2.23×10^{308} <= x < 1.7976931348624×10^{308}
for a positive x
The displayed value for x will be limited by the number of displayable positions.
Functions:
Function  Range of x  

sin x cos x tan x 
DEG: x < 1.7976931348624×10^{308} RAD: x < 1.7976931348624×10^{308} GRAD: x < 1.7976931348624×10^{308} Further only for tan x: (n = integer) DEG: x 90(2n1) RAD: x (/2)(2n1) GRAD: x 100(2n1) 

sin^{1}x cos^{1}x 
1 <= x <= 1  
tan^{1}x  x < 1.7976931348624×10^{308}  
sinh x cosh x  710.47586007394 <= x <= 710.47586007394  
tanh x  1.7976931348623×10^{308} <= x <= 1.7976931348623×10^{308}  
sinh^{1}x  x < 1.3407807929943×10^{154}  
cosh^{1}x  1 <= x < 1.3407807929943×10^{154}  
tanh^{1}x  x < 1  
ln x log x 
2.23×10^{308} <= x < 1.7976931348624×10^{308}  
e^{x}  1.7976931348624×10^{308} < x <= 709.78271289338  
10^{x}  1.3407807929943×10^{154} < x <= 308.25471555991  
x < 1.7976931348624×10^{308}  
1/x  x < 1.7976931348624×10^{308}; x 0  
x^{2}  x < 1.3407807929943×10^{154}  
0 <= x < 1.7976931348624×10^{308}  
n!  0 <= n <= 170 (n = integer)  
DMSDEG DEGDMS 
x < 1.7976931348624×10^{308}  
y^{x} (y^{x}=10^{x log y}) 


(=10^{1/x log y}) 


x, y r, 


r, x, y 
